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**Coordinate transformation**

A coordinate transformation is a change in the mathematical description of a space. In the simple example of a plane, one can describe any position with two coordinates: y for the vertical position, x for the horizontal one, as shown in the graphic below.

However, one could describe it in a different way. For example, shifting the x axis 10 units up. In this new framework, our description of the plane would change, but not the plane itself.

Another kind of transformation would be to use an angle and the distance from the center of the plane in order to specify any point. Again, the mathematical description of points would change, but not the points themselves.

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